Diffuse Maps (Colour Maps) – They are used to add colour or texture to the surface of a model.
Specular Maps (Gloss Maps) – They are used to make areas of a model shiny, used when modelling metals, ceramics and general shiny objects.
Normal Maps (Bump Maps – Used to give textures a more realistic look by adding bumps to them making them not look perfectly flat.
Reflection Maps – Used to make parts of a texture reflective.
Alpha Maps (Transparency Maps) – They indicate which parts of the texture should not be included, used for objects like nets and fences.
UV Mapping – The process of putting 2D textures onto 3D models. UV stands for the axis because XYZ are already used.
XYZ – The axis used in 3DS Max, X and Y being the 2D axis and Z adding the 3D depth.
Vertex – The corners/points of objects, for example a box have 8 vertices.
Polygon – A polygon or poly is what models are made up of in 3DS Max, it is a face and most commonly has 4 vertices. An example is that one side of a bow will be 1 polygon, the box has a whole will have 6 polygons.
Ambient Light – Is a fixed light source that affects all the objects in the scene equally. Used to provide scenes with basic light.
Ambient Occlusion – Tries to replicate how light would reflect off objects in real life.
Anti-Aliasing – Is used to smooth pixels and make rendered objects look less pixelated.
Axis – What you move models on.
Bitmap – Is a file type used to texture models, bitmaps are also contained in other file types like JPEG for example.
Boolean – Is a function used to cut shapes out of models.
Parent – When models are linked the parent is the one they will follow.
Child – The child follows the parent model.
Co-Ordinates – Shows where your object is on the scene, object can be moved and rotated using co-ordinates.
DOF (Depth of Field) – This is used to bring focus to a certain object and blurring the rest.
Extrusion – A tool which extends a face of an model, creating more polygons in the process.
Geometry – The shapes themselves.
HDRI (High-dynamic-range imaging) – The main feature is that the value of each pixel is proportional with the quantity of light on each pixel. Basically instead of just storing colours on the screen like normal bitmaps do, the HDRI format stores the quantity of light per pixel. Meaning we can have more then 256 levels of luminosity. Source
Inverse Kinematics (IK) – Is a method of animating that reverses the direction of the chain manipulation. Rather than work from the root of the tree, it works from the leaves. Source
Material – Can be multiple textures together to add to a model.
Mesh – Wire-frame of a model, like a net and helps in the texturing process.
Orthographic – A camera or view that is two-dimensional, looking straight on at the model.
Perspective – A view that shows everything in real life perspective.
Quads – 4 sided polygons.
Tris – 3 sided polygons.
Tiling – The process of making textures look seamless.